Nitrogen Oxides
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Nitrogen Oxides - NOx

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"Net Zero Energy Revenues to Reach
$690 Billion by 2020
and
$1.3 Trillion by 2035"
~ Navigant Research


"Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming - 
What About The Buildings Already Standing?"
~ Forbes

 

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Nitrogen Oxides
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What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen Oxides, or "NOx" is the term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. Nitrogen Oxides, also known as "nitrogen dioxide" (NO2) and "oxides of nitrogen," as well as other Nitrogen Oxides that  include nitrous acid and nitric acid are regulated by the EPA.  EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) uses nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as the indicator for the larger group of Nitrogen Oxides. Nitrogen Oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. Nitrogen dioxide forms quickly from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, trucks, buses, aircraft, trains, ocean-going vessels, power plants and off-road vehicles. Nitrogen Oxides contribute significantly to the formation of ground-level ozone and fine particle pollution.  Nitrogen Oxides is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system.

 


Nitrogen Oxides - NOx

Absorption Chillers  *  CHP Systems  *  EcoGeneration  *    NetZero Energy  *  Waste Heat Recovery



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Clean Power Generation Solutions


CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants 
Have Very  High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions

The Effective Heat Rate is Approximately 
4100 btu/kW & System Efficiency is 92% Plant.

The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional 
Selective Catalytic Reduction
system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."

    

Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.

Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!


Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas. 

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

 

Reasons for Concern

Plant Image
Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen oxides and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with nitrogen oxides are not confined to areas where nitrogen oxides are emitted. 

Therefore, controlling nitrogen oxides is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

 

Nitrogen Oxides emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for nitrogen oxides which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period.



How can
Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone.



What is
Selective Catalytic Reduction?


Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 



How does
Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems (SCR Systems) work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.



What is Dry Low NOx?

Dry Low NOx refers to handling combustion that lowers nitrogen oxides during the combustion process.  

Typically, a Dry Low NOx combustion systems pre-mix the air and fuel before ignition (combustion) which significantly lowers emissions.

 

What is Clean Combustion?

Clean Combustion includes fuels and technologies that do not require emissions abatement such as Selective Catalytic Reduction, scrubbers or other equipment needed to reduce pollution in power generation and more specifically, to reduce the hazardous air pollutants.  In addition to reducing/eliminating hazardous air pollutants, the EPA is now requiring certain companies and industries to begin reducing their greenhouse gas emissions.

 

Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750

##
Total US CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)


The carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.

Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.

The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.

C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.

Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2.


Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Linked to
the Loss of Polar Bears

Photo courtesy of Alaska Image Library. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service


“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.” 
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director, CIA

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to Foreign Oil


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